Seventeen-year-old Marissa is juggling many roles. She has a demanding part-time job, plays two varsity sports, is studying for the SATs, and is trying to decide where to go to college and how to pay for it. She also has a term paper and an Internet project due this week, needs to find a date and a dress for the prom, is worried that she has gained five pounds, and is afraid that her best friend is mad at her. While Marissa used to feel confident and excited by life’s challenges, she has recently been feeling overwhelmed, out of control and “stressed out.”
Marissa’s story is typical of the daily pressures teens face.
“Stress” is defined as the way our bodies and minds react to life changes. Since adolescence is a period of significant change, including physical, emotional, social, and academic changes, many teens are under more stress than at any other time of life.
Teenage Stress Factors
- Academic pressure and career decisions
- Pressure to wear certain types of clothing or hairstyles
- Pressure to try drugs, alcohol or sex
- Pressure to fit in with peer groups and measure up to others
- Adaptation to bodily changes
- Family and peer conflicts
- Taking on too many activities at one time
It is very important for teens to learn to handle stress. Long-term build-up of stress that is not handled effectively may lead to problems including physical illness, anxiety, or depression, which call for professional help.
Teenage “Stress Overload” Signs
- Increased physical illness (headaches, stomachaches, muscle pains, chronic fatigue)
- “Shutting down” and withdrawal from people and activities
- Increased anger or irritable lashing out at others
- Increased tearfulness and feelings of hopelessness
- Chronic feelings of worry and nervousness
- Difficulty sleeping and eating
- Difficulty concentrating
Our body’s natural reaction to life events that we perceive as overwhelming is the “fight or flight” response, which may produce a faster heart rate, increased blood flow, shallow breathing, a sense of dread, and a desire to escape. However, teens can teach themselves to perceive life challenges as being within their control and can even change their body’s reactions to such events, promoting a lower heart rate, deeper breathing, clearer thinking, and feelings of calmness and control. There are many stress management skills that promote the relaxation response.
Stress Management Skills for Teens
- Taking deep breaths accompanied by thoughts of being in control (“I can handle this”)
- Progressive muscle relaxation (repeatedly tensing and relaxing large muscles of the body)
- Setting small goals and breaking tasks into smaller manageable chunks
- Exercising and eating regular meals, and avoiding excessive caffeine
- Focusing on things you can control and letting go of things you cannot control
- Rehearsing and practicing feared situations (e.g., practicing public speaking or asking someone out on a date)
- Talking about problems with others, including parents, older adults, and friends
- Lowering unrealistic expectations
- Scheduling breaks and enjoyable activities, such as music, art, sports, socializing
- Accepting yourself as you are and identifying unique strengths and building on them, but realizing no one is perfect
For additional stress management tips, click here.
For anxiety management techniques, click here.
For a 10-minute stress-reduction breathing technique, click here.
The website, www.stressfreekids.com, contains a line of children’s books, CDs, and curriculums designed to help children manage anxiety, stress, and anger while promoting self-esteem and peaceful sleep. Their products provide techniques of deep breathing, progressive muscular relaxation, visualizations, and affirmations/positive statements.
For a list of local resources including adolescent medical services, mental health counseling, substance abuse, violence, grief, suicide, and after-school programs for teens, click here.